Pengertian lndigeneous People.
Terdapat berbagai definisi tentang indigenous peoples , diantaranya ;
Instrumen HAM internasional menggunakan definisi Indigenous Peoples berdasarkan rumusan hasil studi oleh José Martinez Cobo: Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from the other sectors of societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems. In short, Indigenous Peoples are the descendants of a territory overcome by conquest or settlement by aliens. (Par. 379) (UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7 and Add. 1-4 )
Definisi Konvensi ILO 169: Indigenous peoples are peoples in independent countries who regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical regions to which the country belongs, at the time of conquest or colonisation or the establishment of present state boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal status, retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions
Bank Dunia: Operational Policy 4.10, together with the Bank Procedures 4.10 ;
Identification. Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples,” this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as “indigenous ethnic minorities,” “aboriginals,” “hill tribes,” “minority nationalities,” “scheduled tribes,” or “tribal groups.”
For purposes of this policy, the term “Indigenous Peoples” is used in a generic sense to refer to a distinct, vulnerable, social and cultural group possessing the following characteristics in varying degrees: (a) self-identification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identity by others;
(b) collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories;
(c) customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the dominant society and culture; and
(d) an indigenous language, often different from the official language of the country or region.
Afrika: The overall characteristics are: their cultures and ways of life differ considerably from the dominant society and their cultures are under threat, in some cases to extent of extinction (Report of the African Commission’s Working Group of Expert on Indigenous Populations/Communities)
Philippina: IPRA Chapter II, Section 3:
Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples – refer to a group of people or homogenous societies identified by self-ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized such territories, sharing common
bonds of language, customs, traditions and other distinctive cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads of colonization, non-indigenous religions and cultures, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. ICCs/IPs shall likewise include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the time of inroads of non-indigenous religions and cultures, or the establishment of present state boundaries, who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains;”
Peristilahan dalam bahasa Indonesia sebagai padanan dari terminologi indigenous peoples sampai saat ini belum menemukan bentuk kesepakatan baku di antara berbagai kalangan. Perdebatan atau diskusi mengenainya mencakup dua aspek: pertama, tentang eksistensi, yaitu tentang apakah di Indonesia memang ada kelompok masyarakat yang dapat disebut sebagai indigenous peoples sebagaimana maknanya dalam diskursus tentang indigenous peoples di Barat; dan kedua adalah mengenai (jika ada kelompok- kelompok ini) istilah padanan dari indigenous peoples dalam bahasa Indonesia.
Kalangan pemerintah, lebih sering menggunakan istilah ‘masyarakat hukum adat’ di samping juga ‘masyarakat asli’. Pilihan ini dapat dipahami bila kita mempelajari sejarah politik di Indonesia dalam konteks hubungan antara Negara (State) dengan masyarakat (peoples dan bukan society). Sementara kalangan akademis banyak menggunakan istilah ‘masyarakat asli’, sebuah istilah yang hampir tidak digunakan oleh aktivis non-government organisation (NGO) yang bergerak di bidang hak asasi manusia dan lingkungan. Kelompok ini lebih memilih istilah masyarakat adat. Di tengah itu kita juga masih dapat menemukan penggunaan istilah ‘masyarakat tradisional’ oleh kalangan pemerintah, akademisi, individu maupun beberapa kalangan masyarakat sipil.